QUANTIFIERS

QUANTIFIERS

Form

• Use

all ◦no ◦each and every ◦some ◦any ◦much and a lot of ◦many and several ◦more and most ◦little and a little ◦less ◦few and fewer ◦enough ◦one, two, three, etc. ◦first, second, third, etc. ◦last ◦either (… or) and   neither (… nor)

•Common Expressions

 

Form

All, no, each,   every, some, any, much, many,   several, more, most, little,   less, a lot of, few, fewer,   enough, one, two, first,   second, last, either, neither.

Use

Los cuantificadores, o determinantes de cantidad,   nos dicen de cuántas cosas o personas hablamos o a qué cantidad se refiere   del sustantivo que acompañan:


There are some cartons of milk in fridge.
Only few swimmers have been   able to cross The Channel.

all

  • Se utiliza con   sustantivos incontables: All electrical equipment should be checked   carefully.
  • Se utiliza con   sustantivos contables, en plural: All shops close at lunch time in this   town.

no

  • Se utiliza en oraciones negativas después de un   verbo en forma positiva: I’ve got no money left. There will be no   test this week because your teacher is ill.

each and every

  • Se usan   solamente con sustantivos contables en singular: Fill in each blank in the   exercise. We have to telephone every person in this list to organise the   party.

some

  • Se utiliza con nombres contables en plural: I’ve   borrowed some books from the library.
  • Se utiliza también con sustantivos incontables: There   is some milk in the fridge.
  • Se utiliza en preguntas cuando esperamos una   respuesta positiva. Por ejemplo, cuando se ofrece comida o bebida: Would   you like some ice-cream? Yes, please!

any

  • Se utiliza en oraciones negativas e interrogativas   tanto con sustantivos contables como incontables: There aren’t any glasses   here. Are there any   glasses here? There isn’t any water on the table. Is there any water on the table?

much and a lot of

  • Much se utiliza con   sustantivos incontables: How much pocket money do you get every week? Hurry up. There isn’t much time left.
  • En inglés hablado much se utiliza solo   en oraciones interrogativas y negativas. Para hablar afirmativamente   se usa a lot of: Andalucía exports a lot of olive oil.   Please, put a lot of cream on my apple pie.

many and several

  • Solo se pueden   utilizar con sustantivos contables en plural: Many German tourists come to   Spain in Summer. I’ve tried to talk to you several times.

more and most

  • Se utilizan con sustantivos contables en plural y   con sustantivos incontables: Teenagers should eat more fruit and   vegetables.
  • Most es la forma   superlativa de more: New York is one of the most attractive cities   in the world.

little and a little

  • Solo se utilizan con sustantivos incontables y   significa poca cantidad. A menudo le acompaña very: I think you pay   (very) little attention to my explanations.
  • a little tiene una   connotación positiva, signfica que hay algo aunque sea poco: Work a little   every day and you’ll succeed with your exams.

less

  • Se usa normalmente con sustantivos incontables. Es   la forma comparativa de little y significa una cantidad más pequeña de   algo: After knowing about the problems of the crazy cows, people eat less   meat at present.

few and fewer

  • Few y   su forma comparativa, fewer, se utilizan con sustantivos   contables en plural: There are few LP’s in the record shop. They are old   fashion. Fewer people buy flats in the centre of Madrid. They are too expensive.
  • few significa   que no hay cantidad suficiente, pero si decimos a few, damos   una connotación positiva a la información, es decir, que aunque pocos, hay   algunos: She has a few friends in her new school. There are a few good   Italian restaurants near here.

enough

  • Se puede utilizar tanto con sustantivos contables en   plural como con sustantivos incontables: There is enough lemonade for   everyone. There aren’t enough glasses for everyone.

one, two, three, etc. (cardinal numbers)

  • Solo se pueden usar con sustantivos contables. One   se usa con el nombre en singular y el resto en plural: I have two good   books for you here. There is only one sweet. Who wants it?

first, second, third, etc. (ordinal   numbers)

  • Solo acompañan a sustantivos contables en plural. First puede   determinar a sustantivos contables en singular también: The first men   landed on the moon in 1969. This is not the first time that we meet. He won   the Oscar for his fifth script.

last

  • Se utiliza para indicar que algo es el último   elemento de una serie, o bien, para informar de que es el acontecimiento más   reciente: This is your last chance. We had a quarrel last week.

either (… or) and neither   (… nor)

  • Se pueden   utilizar con nombres contables o incontables indistintamente: You have to   take either arts or science subjects next year. I have neither milk nor sugar in my coffee.

Common Expressions

No way: you use it to   state that some action is impossible. No doubt you are certain of   something. No problem: something is no trouble for you. Many happy   returns: (of the day) you wish someone a happy birthday

 

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Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Countable and Uncountable Nouns

English nouns are often described as “countable” or “uncountable” but there is also a so called third category.

 

  1. Countable Nouns
  2. Uncountable Nouns
  3. Nouns that can be Countable & Uncountable

1.-Countable Nouns

Countable nouns are easy to recognize. They are things that we can count. For example: “pen”. We can count pens. We can have one, two, three or more pens. Here are some more countable nouns:

  • dog, cat, animal, man, person
  • bottle, box, litre
  • coin, note, dollar
  • cup, plate, fork
  • table, chair, suitcase, bag

Countable nouns can be singular or plural:

  • My dog is playing.
  • My dogs are hungry.

We can use the indefinite article a/an with countable nouns:

  • A dog is an animal.

When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word like a/the/my/this with it:

  • I want an orange. (not I want orange.)
  • Where is my bottle? (not Where is bottle?)

When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone:

  • I like oranges.
  • Bottles can break.

We can use some and any with countable nouns:

  • I’ve got some dollars.
  • Have you got any pens?

We can use a few and many with countable nouns:

  • I’ve got a few dollars.
  • I haven’t got many pens.

“People” is countable. “People” is the plural of “person”. We can count people:

  • There is one person here.
  • There are three people here

 

2.- Uncountable Nouns (MASS NOUNS)

Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot “count” them. For example, we cannot count “milk”. We can count “bottles of milk” or “litres of milk”, but we cannot count “milk” itself. Here are some more uncountable nouns:

  • music, art, love, happiness
  • advice, information, news
  • furniture, luggage
  • rice, sugar, butter, water
  • electricity, gas, power
  • money, currency

We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. We use a singular verb. For example:

  • This news is very important.
  • Your luggage looks heavy.

We do not usually use the indefinite article a/an with uncountable nouns. We cannot say “an information” or “a music”. But we can say a something of:

  • a piece of news
  • a bottle of water
  • a grain of rice

We can use some and any with uncountable nouns:

  • I’ve got some money.
  • Have you got any rice?

We can use a little and much with uncountable nouns:

  • I’ve got a little money.
  • I haven’t got much rice.
Uncountable nouns are also called “mass nouns”.

Here are some more examples of countable and uncountable nouns:

Countable Uncountable
dollar money
song music
suitcase luggage
table furniture
battery electricity
bottle wine
report information
tip advice
journey travel
job work
view scenery

When you learn a new word, it’s a good idea to learn whether it’s countable or uncountable.

3-Nouns that can be Countable and Uncountable

Sometimes, the same noun can be countable and uncountable, often with a change of meaning.

Countable Uncountable
There are two hairs in my coffee! hair I don’t have much hair.
There are two lights in our bedroom. light Close the curtain. There’s too much light!
Shhhhh! I thought I heard a noise.   There are so many different noises in the city. noise It’s difficult to work when there is too much noise.
Have you got a paper to read? (newspaper)   Hand me those student papers. paper I want to draw a picture. Have you got some paper?
Our house has seven rooms. room Is there room for me to sit here?
We had a great time at the party.   How many times have I told you no? time Have you got time for a coffee?
Macbeth is one of Shakespeare’s greatest works. work I have no money. I need work!
Drinks (coffee, water, orange juice) are usually uncountable. But if we are thinking of a cup or a glass, we can say (in a restaurant, for example):

  • Two teas and one coffee please.

Group nouns/ Collective nouns

GROUP NOUNS/ COLLECTIVE NOUNS.

 

A collective noun is a noun that is singular in form but refers to a group of people or things.

Sometimes they refer to a group of specific things:-

For example:-

Tables, chairs, cupboards etc. are grouped under the collective noun furniture.

Plates, saucers, cups and bowls are grouped under the collective noun crockery.

 

These collective nouns are often uncountable.

Sometimes they are more general:

For example:

  • Groups of people: army, audience, band, choir, class, committee, crew, family, gang, jury, orchestra, police, staff, team, trio
  • Groups of animals : colony, flock, herd, pack, pod, school, swarm
  • Groups of things: bunch, bundle, clump,  pair, set, stack

When such a group is considered as a single unit, the collective noun is used with a singular verb and singular pronouns.

For exampleThe committee has reached its decision.

But when the focus is on the individual members of the group, British English uses a plural verb and plural pronouns.

For example“The committee have been arguing all morning.”

This is the same as saying “The people in the committe have been ….

A determiner in front of a singular collective noun is always singular: this committee , never these committee (but of course when the collective noun is pluralized, it takes a plural determiner: these committees ).

 

 

Special  names for Groups

There are actually many special quantifiers used for specific nouns–but many of them are literary or  archaic (“old-fashioned”) terms that were never very  well known and are certainly not well known or  commonly used today. Because they are unusual  and interesting, however, we’ve included a few of  the morecolorful ones.

a bale of turtles   a nest of mice
a band of gorillas   a nye of pheasants
a bevy of swans   an ostentation
  of peaocks
a brood of hens   a parliament of
  owls / rooks
a cast of
  falcons / hawks
  a plague of locusts
a colony of ants /
  beavers / gulls /
  penguins / rats / seals
  a school of
  porpoises / dolphins
a flight of
  doves / pigeons
  a skulk of foxes
a knot of toads   a sloth of bears
a leap of leopards   a sounder of
  boars / swine
a murder (or hover)
  of crows
  a string of ponies

 

R.S. Exercises

Finish the sentences using Reported speech. Always change the tense, although it is sometimes not necessary.

Example: Peter: “Did John clean the black shoes yesterday?”

Answer: Peter asked me if John had cleaned the black shoes the day before.

1) Mandy: “Are the boys reading the book?” Yesterday Mandy asked me .

2) Jason: “Who gave you the laptop?” Yesterday Jason wanted to know .

3) Robert: “Is Tim leaving on Friday?” Yesterday Robert asked me .

4) Daniel: “Will it rain tomorrow?” Yesterday Daniel asked me .

5) Jennifer: “Where do you play football today?” Yesterday Jennifer wanted to know .

6) Nancy: “Why didn’t Nick go to New York last summer?” Yesterday Nancy wanted to know .

7) Barbara: “Must I do my homework this afternoon?” Yesterday Barbara asked me .

8) Linda: “Did Max fly to London two weeks ago?” Yesterday Linda wanted to know .

9) Grandmother: “Where are my glasses?” Yesterday Grandmother asked me .

10) A man: “When does the train to Liverpool leave?” Yesterday a man asked me .

 

Finish the sentences using Reported speech. Always change the tense, although it is sometimes not necessary.

Example: Peter: “I cleaned the black shoes yesterday.”

Answer: Peter told me that he had cleaned the black shoes the day before.

1) Emily: “Our teacher will go to Leipzig tomorrow.” Emily said that .

2) Helen: “I was writing a letter yesterday.” Helen told me that .

3) Robert: “My father flew to Dallas last year.” Robert told me that .

4) Lisa: “Tim went to the stadium an hour ago.” Lisa said that .

5) Patricia: “My mother will celebrate her birthday next weekend.” Patricia said that .

6) Michael: “I am going to read a book this week.” Michael said to me that .

7) Jason and Victoria: “We will do our best in the exams tomorrow.” Jason and Victoria told me that .

8) Andrew: “We didn’t eat fish two days ago.” Andrew remarked that .

9) Alice: “I spent all my pocket money on Monday.” Alice complained that .

10) David: “John had already gone at six.” David said that .

REPORTED SPEECH

We use  reported speech when we are saying what other people say, think or believe.

  • He  says he wants it.
  • We  think you are right.
  • I  believe he loves her.
  • Yesterday  you said you didn’t like it but now you do!
  • She  told me he had asked her to marry him.
  • I told  you she was ill.
  • We  thought he was in Australia.

When we are  reporting things in the present, future or present perfect we don’t change the  tense.

  • He  thinks he loves her.
  • I’ll  tell her you are coming.
  • He has  said he’ll do it.

When we  tell people what someone has said in the past, we generally make the tense  ‘more in the past’.

  • You  look very nice. = I told him he looked very nice.
  • He’s  working in Siberia now. = She told me he was working in Siberia now.
  • Polly  has bought a new car. = She said Polly had bought a new car.
  • Jo  can’t come for the weekend. = She said Jo couldn’t come for the weekend.
  • Paul  called and left a message. = He told me Paul had called and had left me a  message.
  • I’ll  give you a hand. = He said he would give me a hand.

However,  when we are reporting something that was said in the past but is still true, it  is not obligatory to make the tense ‘more in the past’. The choice is up to the  speaker. For example:

“The  train doesn’t stop here.”

  • He  said the train doesn’t stop here.
  • He  said the train didn’t stop here.

“I  like Sarah.”

  • She  said she likes Sarah.
  • She  said she liked Sarah.

When we are  reporting what was said, we sometimes have to change other words in the  sentence.

We have to  change the pronoun if we are reporting what someone else said. Compare these  two sentences. In each case the person actually said “I don’t want to  go.”

  • I said  I didn’t want to go.
  • Bill  said he didn’t want to go.

We have to  change words referring to ‘here and now’ if we are reporting what was said in a  different place or time.                       Compare  these two sentences. In each case the person actually said “I’ll be there  at ten tomorrow.”

  •                           (If it  is later the same day) He said he would be there at ten tomorrow.
  •                           (If it  is the next day) He said he would be there at ten today.

Now compare  these two sentences.

  •                           (If we  are in a different place) He said he would be there tomorrow at ten.
  •                           (If we are in the place he is coming to) He said he  would be here at ten tomorrow.

YOU CAN DOWNLOAD THE PRESENTATION HERE: REPORTED SPEECH

*** Easter reading homework

 

 

 

We have selected one of the greatest detectives stories ever written  by Oscar Wilde who is indeed one of the most prolific and talented writers

This story was first published in The Court and Society Review, in late 1887. The main character, Lord Arthur Savile, is introduced by Lady Windermere to Mr Septimus R. Podgers, a chiromantist, who reads his palm and tells him that it is his destiny to be a murderer. Lord Arthur wants to marry, but decides he has no right to do so until he has committed the murder.

His first attempted murder victim is his elderly Aunt Clementina, who suffers from heartburn. Pretending it is medicine, Lord Arthur gives her a capsule of poison, telling her to take it only when she has an attack of heartburn. Reading a telegram in Venice some time later, he finds that she has died and victoriously returns to London to learn that she has bequeathed him some property.

Sorting through the inheritance, his future wife Sybil Merton finds the poison pill, untouched; thus Lord Arthur’s aunt died from natural causes and he finds himself in need of a new victim. After some deliberation, he obtains a bomb from a friendly German anarchist, disguised as a carriage-clock, and sends it anonymously to a distant relative, the Dean of Chichester.

When the bomb goes off, however, the only damage done seems like a novelty trick, and the Dean’s son spends his afternoons making tiny, harmless explosions with the clock. In despair, Lord Arthur believes that his marriage plans are doomed, only to encounter the same palm-reader who had told his fortune late at night on the bank of the River Thames. Realising the best possible outcome, he pushes the man off a parapet into the river where he dies. A verdict of suicide is returned at the inquest and Lord Arthur happily goes on to marry. In a slight twist, the palmister is denounced as a fraud, leaving it up to the reader as to whether the story is a result of free will or destiny.

and overall, ENJOY YOUR VACATIONS !!!

   

Puppet theatre for cultural week

FROGGY WENT A CURTAIN

Script By  Patricia Chillón.

 

(in a park)

Sarah: What a beautiful day!

Gus: Yes I’m so happy we’ve come

Sarah: aha, this park it’s so beauty

Gus: Have you heard something?

Sarah: No. Kids Did you hear something??

Kids: Yes!!

Sarah: So let’s go and we’d seen

(they hide and listen to the conversation)

Kevin: It is a perfect plan, we would throw all the rubbish to the city and the world would be ours. Hahaha!!

Peter: That poor boy, Chucky, he would do it for us and Super R would die, all would be perfect!! Hahahah!!

Kevin: Imagine all the people crying and saying “please Kevin, please Peter help us help us!!”

Kevin and Peter: Hahahahahhahahah!!!!

(return to Sarah and Gus)

Gus: Wow! We have to stop them!!

Sarah: Yes it’s time to call Super R but guys we have to shout it very very lout. 1,2,3

Gus and Sarah: SUPER R!!!

(Super R appear)

Super R: What’s happening??

Sarah: Oh! Super R the bad Kevin and the bad Peter want to throw rubbish to all the places in the world!!

Super R: It’s that true??

Gus: Yes we’ve heard it!!

Super R: And where are they??

Sarah: We’ve heard them talking behind the trees

Gus: Oh no! They have gone!! Oh…

 

(in the house of Kevin and Peter)

Kevin: So, Chucky, that’s the plan, do you like it?

Chucky: Yes Sir, but why do you do that?

Peter: Why? Why? I’m going to tell you why. Super R is my worst enemy, I want to win and make him feel sad. And then we’re going to control the world! Buajajajajaj!!!

Kevin: Ahahaha! Super R will die!!!! Buajajajajajja!!

Chucky: Can I turn on the evil polluting machine??

Peter: Of course

(Chucky turn on the machine)

Kevin: Isn’t it beautiful?

Peter: Yes… So beautiful and so polluting. The machine is throwing all the rubbish to the city and all the CO2 to the sky.

(Super R, Sarah and Gus go into the house)

Super R: Stop now!

Kevil: NO!

Super R: I guess without this card the machine doesn’t go Mmm??

Peter: How do you know that??

Gus:  He is intelligent not like you!!

Chucky: Please a little of respect!

Sarah:  oh! Shut up!

(Chucky take Sarah with him)

Sarah: Help! Help! Super R please!!!

Peter: Good idea Chucky! Let’s go! Quickly quickly!!

(Super R is talking to Gus)

Gus: What are we going to do??

Super R: I don’t know, I don’t know!!

(someone calling)

Kevin: If you want to see your friend Sarah one more time you have to give us the card or Sarah will die

Super R: Ok

Peter: Go to the forest, alone, with the card, at ten o’clock if you are late we will kill her…

Kevin: Do you understand?

Super R: Yes

(Call of)

Gus:  What are you going to do?

Super R: Go alone

 Gus: but…

Super R: don’t say anything…

(in the forest)

Super R: here is the card

Chucky: here is your friend

(they interchanged)

Super R: Now! Gus!

(Gus jump and get the card)

Kevin Peter and Chucky: Noooooooooo

Sarah: The recycle team has won!!

Super R: So, if we take care of our planet all will be okay, it’s so simple

All together: Reduce, reuse, recycle!!!