Carnaval, carnaval …..

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When do we use the propper verb tense?

Simple Present

USE 1 Repeated Actions

USE 2 Facts or Generalizations

USE 3 Scheduled Events in the Near Future

USE 4 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

Simple Past

USE 1 Completed Action in the Past

USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions

USE 3 Duration in Past

USE 4 Habits in the Past

USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations

Simple Future

USE 1 “Will” to Express a Voluntary Action

USE 2 “Will” to Express a Promise

USE 3 “Be going to” to Express a Plan

USE 4 “Will” or “Be Going to” to Express a Prediction

Present Continuous

USE 1 Now

USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now

USE 3 Near Future

USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with “Always”

Past Continuous

USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past

USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption

USE 3 Parallel Actions

USE 4 Atmosphere

USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with “Always”

Future Continuous

USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Future

USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption in the Future

USE 3 Parallel Actions in the Future

USE 4 Atmosphere in the Future

 

Present Perfect

USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now

USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

Past Perfect

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)

Future Perfect

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Future

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs)

Present Perfect Continuous

USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now

USE 2 Recently, Lately

Past Perfect Continuous

USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Past

USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past

Future Perfect Continuous

USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Future

USE 2 Cause of Something in the Future

Addicted to plastic

I WISH …..

Make three wishes for the  genie….

This  is mine:

 I wish I wasn’t here now. I wish I was on vacaion.

 

Now, listen to Pearl Jam

“Wishlist”

I wish I was a neutron bomb, for once I could go off I wish I was a sacrifice but somehow still lived on I wish I was a sentimental ornament you hung on The Christmas tree, I wish I was the star that went on top I wish I was the evidence, I wish I was the grounds For 50 million hands upraised and open toward the sky
I wish I was a sailor with someone who waited for me I wish I was as fortunate, as fortunate as me I wish I was a messenger and all the news was good I wish I was the full moon shining off a Camaro’s hood
I wish I was an alien at home behind the sun I wish I was the souvenir you kept your house key on I wish I was the pedal brake that you depended on I wish I was the verb ‘to trust’ and never let you down
I wish I was a radio song, the one that you turned up I wish… I wish…

What are your wishes share them with the class.

“What is she doing?” (running in the rain)

“Does she want to be running in the rain?” (no) “

“What does she want to be doing?” (sitting at home with a cup of tea).

Person in  prison:

Why is he in prison?” (because he stole a car)

“Does he regret stealing the car?” (if students are not comfortable  with the verb regret:

“Does he want to change the past?” (yes)

What does he regret?” (stealing the car)

“So he wishes he hadn’t stolen the car?”

Wishes about the present and future

1. We use wish + past simple to express that we want a situation in the present (or future) to be different. •I wish I spoke Italian. (I don’t speak Italian.) •I wish I had a big car. (I don’t have a big car.) •I wish I was on a beach. (I’m in the office.) Future: I wish it was the weekend tomorrow. (It’s only Thursday tomorrow.)

2. We use wish + past continuous to express that we want to be doing a different action in the present (or future). •I wish I was lying on a beach now. (I’m sitting in the office.) •I wish it wasn’t raining. (It is raining.) •I wish you weren’t leaving tomorrow. (You are leaving tomorrow.)

Wishes about the past

1.We use wish + past perfect to express a regret, or that we want a situation in the past to be different.

•I wish I hadn’t eaten so much. (I ate a lot.)

•I wish they’d come on holiday with us. (They didn’t come on holiday with us.)

•I wish I had studied harder at school. (I was lazy at school.) Wish + would

1.We use wish + would + bare infinitive to express impatience, annoyance or dissatisfaction with a present action.

•I wish you would stop smoking. (You are smoking at the moment and it is annoying me.)

•I wish it would stop raining. (I’m impatient because it is raining and I want to go outside.)

•I wish she’d be quiet. (I am annoyed because she is speaking.)

Wish and hope

1.To simply express that you want something to happen in the future (not talking about wanting an action or situation to be different, and not talking about impatience or annoyance) we use hope, not wish. •I hope it’s sunny tomorrow.

NOT I wish it was sunny tomorrow. •I hope she passes her exam next week. NOT I wish she were passing her exam next week. •I hope the plane doesn’t crash tomorrow.

NOT I wish the plane wouldn’t crash tomorrow. Wish and want

1.We can use wish + infinitive or wish + object + infinitive to mean want in a formal situation.

•I wish to leave now. (+ infinitive)

•I wish to speak to your supervisor please. (+ infinitive)

•I do not wish my name to appear on the list. (+ object + infinitive)

Wish in fixed expressions

1.We can use I/We wish you in fixed expressions.

•I wish you a happy birthday.

•We wish you good luck in your new job.

Pronunciation

1.In connected speech catenation and elision often occur with wish.

•I wish I’d studied harder: /wI ʃaɪd/ (catenation – the last consonant sound of wish is joined to the vowel sound in I)

•I wish he hadn’t done that: /wI ʃiː/ (catenation and elison – as above, and the first consonant sound in he is elided)

SCOTTISH INDEPENDENCE

Scottish Independence

The majority of people in Scotland are in favour breaking away from the rest of the UK and becoming independent, according to a poll taken just before the 300th anniversary of the Act of Union, which united Scotland and England.

A pair of Acts of Parliament, passed in 1706 and 1707 that came into effect on May 1, 1707, created Great Britain. The parliaments of both countries were dissolved, and replaced by a new Parliament of Great Britain in Westminster, London.

The poll showed support for independence for Scotland is running at 51%. This is the first time since 1998 that support for separation has passed 50%, and the first time since devolution gave power to the country in 1999. Six months before elections for the Scottish Parliament, these poll results come as good news to the Scottish Nationalist Party, who are hoping to make progress against Labour and further the cause of an independent Scotland.

Many people have become disillusioned with devolution, and believe that the Scottish Parliament has failed to deliver what they had hoped it would; only a tenth have no opinion. In fact, only 39% of those polled want to keep things as they are.

Questions

Q1 – Scotland and England

  • have always been united.
  • want to break up the union.
  • have been united for a long time.
  • were united by war.

Q2 – Great Britain

  • was formed by an Act of Parliament in 1706.
  • was formed by two Acts of Parliament in 1707.
  • was formed by an Act of Parliament that came into effect on May 1st 1707.
  • was formed by Acts of Parliament that came into effect on May 1st 1707.

Q3 – People who want indepence for Scotland

  • are the vast majority.
  • are in the minority.
  • are the slight majority.
  • have decreased in number since devolution.

Q4 – The majority of people wanted independence for the first time

  • before devolution.
  • in 1999.
  • after devolution.
  • before and after independence.

Q5 – The results of the poll are good news

  • for Labour.
  • for both parties.
  • for the Scottish Nationalist Party.
  • for devolution.

Q6 – Most people’s opinions of devolution

  • have gone up.
  • have gone down.
  • are the same.
  • make progress against Labour.

Q7 – The number of people who want to keep things as they are

  • is greater than those that don’t know.
  • is smaller than those that don’t know.
  • is increasing.
  • is the majority.

EXERCISES ON RELATIVE CLAUSES .PDF

As we have said in class you should practice this exercises

CLICK THE LINK BELOW:

Exercises on def/non def. clauses

RELATIVE CLAUSES

Imagine, a girl is talking to Tom. You want to know who she is and ask a friend whether he knows her. You could say:

A girl is talking to Tom. Do you know the girl?

That sounds rather complicated, doesn’t it? It would be easier with a relative clause: you put both pieces of information into one sentence. Start with the most important thing  – you want to know who the girl is.

Do you know the girl …

As your friend cannot know which girl you are talking about, you need to put in the additional information  – the girl is talking to Tom. Use „the girl“ only in the first part of the sentence, in the second part replace it with the relative pronoun (for people, use the relative pronoun „who“). So the final sentence is:

Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?

Relative Pronouns

relative pronoun use example
who subject or object pronoun for people I told you about the woman who lives next door.
which subject or object pronoun for animals and things Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?
which referring to a whole sentence He couldn’t read which surprised me.
whose possession for people animals and things Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse?
whom object pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who) I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference.
that subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible) I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.

Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun?

Subject and object pronouns cannot be distinguished by their forms – who, which, that are used for subject and object pronouns. You can, however, distinguish them as follows:

If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun. Subject pronouns must always be used.

the apple which is lying on the table

If the relative pronoun is not followed by a verb (but by a noun or pronoun), the relative pronoun is an object pronoun. Object pronouns can be dropped in defining relative clauses, which are then called Contact Clauses.

the apple (which) George lay on the table

Relative Adverbs

A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition. This often makes the sentence easier to understand.

This is the shop in which I bought my bike. → This is the shop where I bought my bike.

relative adverb meaning use example
when in/on which refers to a time expression the day when we met him
where in/at which refers to a place the place where we met him
why for which refers to a reason the reason why we met him

Defining Relative Clauses

Defining relative clauses (also called identifying relative clauses or restrictive relative clauses) give detailed information defining a general term or expression. Defining relative clauses are not put in commas.

Imagine, Tom is in a room with five girls. One girl is talking to Tom and you ask somebody whether he knows this girl. Here the relative clause defines which of the five girls you mean.

Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?

Defining relative clauses are often used in definitions.

A seaman is someone who works on a ship.

Object pronouns in defining relative clauses can be dropped. (Sentences with a relative clause without the relative pronoun are called Contact Clauses.)

The boy (who/whom) we met yesterday is very nice.

Non-Defining Relative Clauses

Non-defining relative clauses (also called non-identifying relative clauses or non-restrictive relative clauses) give additional information on something, but do not define it. Non-defining relative clauses are put in commas.

Imagine, Tom is in a room with only one girl. The two are talking to each other and you ask somebody whether he knows this girl. Here the relative clause is non-defining because in this situation it is obvious which girl you mean.

Do you know the girl, who is talking to Tom?

Note: In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with that.

Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used.

Jim, who/whom we met yesterday, is very nice.

How to Shorten Relative Clauses?

Relative clauses with who, which, that as subject pronoun can be replaced with a participle. This makes the sentence shorter and easier to understand.

I told you about the woman who lives next door. – I told you about the woman living next door.

Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? – Do you see the cat lying on the roof?